Evolutionary Concept Analysis of Spirituality

Abstract

Purpose: This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. Methods: Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. Results: Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: ‘intimacy and connectedness with God’ and ‘holy life and belief’, 2) horizontal dimension: ‘self-transcendence’, ‘meaning and purpose in life’, ‘self-integration’, and ‘self-creativity’ in relationship with self, ‘connectedness’ and ‘trust’ in relationship with others, neighbors, and nature. Antecedents of spirituality were socio-demographic, religious, psychological, and health related characteristics. Consequences of spirituality were positive and negative. Being positive included ‘life centered on God’ in vertical dimension, and among horizontal dimension ‘joy’, ‘hope’, ‘wellness’, ‘inner peace’, and ‘self-actualization’ in relationship with self, ‘doing in love’ and ‘extended life toward neighbors and the world’ in relationship with others, neighbors, and nature. Being negative was defined as having ‘guilt’, ‘inner conflict’, ‘loneliness’, and ‘spiritual distress’. Facilitators of spirituality were stressful life events and experiences. Conclusion: Spirituality is a multidimensional concept. Unchangeable attributes of spirituality are ‘connectedness with God’, ‘self-transcendence’, ‘meaning of life’ and ‘connectedness with others and nature’. Unchangeable consequences of spirituality are ‘joy’ and ‘hope’. The findings suggest that the dimensional framework of spirituality can be used to assess the current spiritual state of patients. Based on these results, the development of a Korean version of the scale measuring spirituality is recommended.

Publication
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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